Air quality

Air is one of the basic elements supporting life on earth. The quality of our air directly impacts the quality of our lives, our health and wellbeing, and the environment.

Environment Southland monitors air quality across the region to compare it against the health-based national air quality standards and guidelines. Poor air quality can be particularly harmful to children, the elderly, and people with respiratory conditions such as asthma.

The issue

Our air quality is degraded when pollutants from human activities are released into the air. These pollutants may be from domestic fires, industrial activities, motor vehicles, farming activities and outdoor burning. In our urban areas during the wintertime, domestic fires are the main cause of poor air quality.

Despite being relatively windy, Southland experiences periods of high pressure during the winter months. These high pressure systems often bring clear skies and cool nights that allow temperature inversions to develop. Temperature inversions occur a warmer layer of air overlies a cooler layer near the earth's surface. The result is that the warmer layer traps pollutants near the surface and causes the concentrations to increase.

The primary pollutant of concern in Southland is particulate matter smaller than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Increase concentrations of PM10 are associated with numerous health problems. These problems range from minor irritation of the eyes and nose, to more severe effects when inhaled such as respiratory diseases and asthma attacks. Children and the elderly tend to be the most susceptible. Further information on particles in the atmosphere can be found on the Ministry for the Environment's website.

What we are doing

Environment Southland recently reviewed part of its Regional Air Quality Plan for Southland to develop a set of measures to help reduce the amount of pollutants being released into the air. This review was the first stage and dealt with domestic heating, outdoor burning, agrichemicals, fertilisers and fire training. The second stage of the review will address the remaining sections of the plan including industrial and trade discharges and odour.

We are taking an education first approach, ensuring that the community is aware of the effect that certain activities have on air quality. The publication of Southland's first State of the Environment Report on Air in 2014 is one example of the education activities we are undertaking. Read the report, Southland's Air/Nga Hau o Murihiku.

Does your burner need replaced?

If you live in the Invercargill or Gore airsheds, the Regional Air Plan may require you to change your home heating. Any new burner being installed must comply with the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality. These are listed on the Ministry for the Environment's website ( You can continue to use your existing non-compliant burner until the dates listed here. To find out when your burner was installed, contact the Invercargill City or Gore District Council's building consents department.

​Open fires

If you have an open fire, you are no longer permitted to use it within the Invercargill and Gore airsheds. This is effective from 1 January 2017.

Burner installed before 1 January 1997​

​Invercargill – You may use your burner until 1 January 2019, however you must burn only wood from 1 January 2017.

Gore – You may use your burner until 1 January 2020, however you must burn only wood from 1 January 2017.

​Burner installed 1 January 1997 - 1 January 2001

​Invercargill and Gore – You may use your burner until 1 January 2022.

Burner installed 1 January 2001 – 1 September 2005

Invercargill and Gore – You may use your burner until 1 January 2025.

​Burner installed 1 September 2005 – 1 January 2010*

Invercargill and Gore – You may use your burner until 1 January 2030.

Burner installed 1 January 2010 – 6 September 2014*

​Invercargill and Gore – You may use your burner until 1 January 2034.

* If your wood burner was installed after September 2005 it may be on the Ministry for the Environment’s list of approved wood burners and not require replacement.

Visit the Ministry for the Environment's website for a full list of approved burners -

Clean Air Loans

Clean Air Loans are available in both Invercargill and Gore to assist with the costs of moving to cleaner heating. The loans scheme is administered by the Southland Warm Homes Trust and further information can be obtained by phoning 0800 WARMSOUTH (0800 927 676), or by visiting Awarua Synergy's website.

What you can do

There are a number of things you can do at home to help keep the air clean. Simple things that don't cost you any money include:

  • burning dry firewood (which is cleaner burning than coal)
  • not damping down your fire
  • not burning household rubbish
  • making sure your home is adequately insulated

For further information, please check out our Warm Up Wisely brochure.

Page reviewed: 08 May 2019 11:14am